Advertising “Doctor/Dr.”

April 2010

As I have previously written, probably on more than one occasion, the general rule on advertising by licensed health professionals is that advertising is permissible so long as it is not false, fraudulent, misleading or deceptive. Some or all of these four words describing unlawful advertising by health professionals may be defined in state law or regulation. Each state may treat this subject somewhat differently, so reference to the particular state’s law may be necessary. With respect to the word “doctor” or the letters or prefix “Dr.,” state law (the Medical Practice Act) in California makes it a crime (misdemeanor) for any person to advertise by using the word “doctor” or the letters or prefix “Dr.” when referring to himself or herself in advertising (e.g., on the Internet, a business card, sign) unless the person is licensed as a physician and surgeon.

Some therapists or counselors that have a PhD or other related doctoral degree that qualifies them for licensure refer to themselves as a doctor (or as Dr.) without using the PhD after their name. Some do this by mistake, while others do it intentionally. I have seen practitioners refer to themselves by a title that doesn’t exist as a state-issued license (e.g., “licensed psychotherapist“) and neglect to put the related PhD after his/her name while in the same ad referring to him/herself as a doctor. In both of these situations, these practitioners typically do not disclose the title of their actual licenses. Such advertisements are problematic at best. Depending upon state law or regulation, such advertisements may constitute unprofessional conduct and/or may subject the practitioner to criminal charges.

In any criminal prosecution or licensing board disciplinary action involving wrongful advertising by a licensed health professional, the entire advertisement is relevant. The courts and licensing boards will typically look at the “four corners of the advertisement.” Even if the law is not violated by a particular advertisement, proper ethical behavior and transparency would seem to dictate that the consumer is entitled to know the exact kind of license that is held by the practitioner. Why would a licensee not disclose his or her actual licensure? Why would a licensee be so desirous of being referred to as a “doctor” or as “Dr?” The answer, it might be alleged, is the licensee wants to mislead the consumer into believing that he/she has a greater or different license than he/she actually possesses.


Richard Leslie

"At the Intersection of Law and Psychotherapy" Richard S. Leslie is an attorney who has practiced at the intersection of law and psychotherapy for the past twenty-five years. Most recently, he was a consultant to the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT), where he worked with their various state divisions to develop and implement their legislative agendas. He also provided telephone consultation services to AAMFT members regarding legal and ethical issues confronting practitioners of diverse licensure nationwide. Additionally, he wrote articles regarding legal and ethical issues for their Family Therapy Magazine and presented at workshops on a variety of legal issues. Prior to his work with AAMFT, Richard was Legal Counsel to the California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists (CAMFT) for approximately twenty-two years. He was director of Government Relations for CAMFT, and as such was the architect of CAMFT’s widely regarded and successful legislative agenda. He represented CAMFT before the regulatory board (the Board of Behavioral Sciences) and was a tireless advocate for due process and fairness for licensees and applicants. He was a regular presenter at workshops and was consistently evaluated as CAMFT’s most highly rated presenter. He also sat with the CAMFT Ethics Committee and acted as their advisor on matters pertaining to the enforcement of ethical standards. Richard is an acknowledged expert on matters pertaining to the interrelationship between law and the practice of marriage and family therapy and psychotherapy. For many years, he taught Law and Ethics courses for a number of colleges and universities in their marriage and family therapy degree programs. While at CAMFT, he provided telephone consultation services with thousands of therapists in California and elsewhere for over twenty years. He is highly regarded for his judgment, his expertise, his direct style, and his clarity. Richard has been the driving force for many of the changes and additions to the laws of the State of California that affect MFTs. In 1980, he was primarily responsible for achieving passage of the "Freedom of Choice Law" that required insurance companies to pay for psychotherapy services performed by MFTs. Passage of that law allowed MFTs to earn a living, allowed them to better compete in the marketplace, and strengthened the profession in California by leading to a great increase in the number of licensees and CAMFT membership. Currently, about half of the licensed marriage and family therapists in the country are licensed in California. While at CAMFT, Richard was primarily responsible for, among other things, the successful effort to criminalize sex between a patient and a therapist. He was successful in extending the laws of psychotherapist-patient privilege to MFTs, thereby giving patients the same level of privacy protection as when seeing a psychiatrist or psychologist. He fought tirelessly and successfully for the right of MFTs to refer to themselves as "psychotherapists," to perform psychological testing services, to be appropriately reimbursed by California’s Victims of Crime Program, and to be employed in county mental health agencies throughout California. Richard was admitted to the Bar in New York (1969) and in California (1973). While practicing in New York, he served as a public defender, and later, as an Assistant District Attorney. Shortly after moving to California, he worked for the San Diego County Human Relations Commission as their Law and Justice Officer. While there, he worked successfully to achieve greater racial diversity in the criminal jury selection system and to expose and stop police abuse. For such work with that agency, he was the recipient of the Civil Libertarian of the Year Award by the San Diego Chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union.

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